Water systems operate with relatively simple, often manual, control systems. As a result, water treatment, distribution and use is not optimized for energy cost or marginal value.  WERRI researchers are utilizing best-in-class systems control and optimization strategies from other industries and adapting them to the water sector.  Urban utilities that adopt these techniques can save significant energy by pumping water when power is least in demand, and agricultural water users can optimize the value of their crops, water and energy use to increase profitability.