WERRI researchers are pioneering advanced water treatment technologies to lower the energy use in water treatment while increasing the safety and reliability.  Using the tools of nano-engineering and advanced computational modeling, WERRI researchers are optimizing the performance of current water treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, and developing novel low-cost water purification technologies that can operate using sunlight and air. WERRI researchers are also developing novel methods and systems for water reuse and conservation, including economic and systems models that illuminate the magnitude of economic benefit for California and the U.S. that can come from these innovations.