Water systems operate with relatively simple, often manual, control systems. As a result, water treatment, distribution and use is not optimized for energy cost or marginal value. WERRI researchers are utilizing best-in-class systems control and optimization strategies from other industries and adapting them to the water sector. WERRI researchers also study the factors that influence water demand, and how water efficiency at the appliance, building, and utility-scale which can be used to lower water usage and make water conservation measures and programs more efficient and effective. Urban utilities that adopt these techniques can save significant energy by pumping water when power is least in demand, and save water when maximally beneficial. Agricultural water users can use these tools to optimize the value of their crops, water and energy use to increase profitability.